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Showing 105 results for Subject: Health

Gh Edrissian, A Afshar, A Kanani, Mt Satvatand, M Ghorbani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-1987)
Abstract

In vivo and in vitro assessments of the response of P. falciparum to chloroquine using WHO standard kits and techniques were carried out in I ran Shahr, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran in 1985. In the in vivo assessment, 24 malaria patients treated with chloroquine (25mg/kg over three days) were followed up for one to four weeks. The mean parasite clearance time was 4.3 days and in two cases, recrudescence occurred on the 20th and 22nd day. In the micro in vitro test, from among 87 samples, the growth of the parasites was satisfactory in 11 cases (12.6%) and the development of the parasites continued in the presence of higher doses of chloroquine (1.14 to 6.4 micromol/l blood). In the macro in vitro test, from 28 successful tests, the growth of the parasites continued in the presence of higher doses of chloroquine (1.25 to 3 micromol/l blood) in eight cases (28.5%). The present study showed resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine in Iran Shahr area, southeastern Iran, and confirmed the results of the preliminary studies carried out in this area in 1983.
A Nadim, E Javadian, G Tahvildar-Bidruni, H Amini, Y Pezechki,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (8-1988)
Abstract

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is hyperendemic in the rural areas, north and east of the city of Isfahan in the central region of Iran. Attempts to control the disease by different methods have all failed. A field trial showed that the effectiveness of leishmanization was successful in a limited part of this area. In February 1982 and 1983, more than 80,000 persons were inoculated. Our evaluation demonstrated that this vaccination program reduced the number of cases to almost one-seventh the expected number. In general, although this type of immunization may not be recommendable in most endemic areas, it may he used in persons and populations moving into high risk areas.
H Malek-Afzali,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (2-1989)
Abstract

Birth and death indicators were examined through retrospective surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987 in the Islamic Republic of lran, reviewing 1984 and 1986 events, to obtain infant mortality rate (IMR) and other necessary indicators for health planning and evaluation. Comparison between 1985 and 1987 surveys revealed: 1. No major change in crude death rate ( 6.3 per 1000 in 1987 survey) had occurred. 2.IMR was 51 per 1000 live births in 1987 survey. 3. The proportion of death rate in children under 5 year to total death has dropped in rural areas from 55 per 100 to 48, and in towns froms 32 to 29. 4. Still about 20 and 22 per 100 deaths in urban and rural areas respectively in under 5 children are due to diarrhea the percentage of those due to infectious diseases in the same areas and age group, is 30 and 32 per 100. 5. Birth rate has dropped from 40.4 to 37.7 per 1000 as a result, natural growth of population has decreased from 3.40 per 100 in the 1985 survey to 3.14 in 1987. 6. Maternal mortality rate has dropped considerably in rural areas, from 23 per 10,000 live births to 18.
Mm Semsar-Yazdi, R Nategh, H Malekafzali, P Kamali, A Biniaz, N Sabouri, T Mokhtari-Azad, P Rezai, Ossia,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (2-1989)
Abstract

In this report, a seroepidemiological survey was performed to determine the prevalence of rubella immunity and antibody titer in 11-16 year old girls in urban and rural areas of Tonkabon district in northern Iran. The results and conclusion are presented.
Masood Emami, Mohammad Ghahri,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (2-1990)
Abstract

A total of 1118 soldiers who were wounded in war and hospitalized in Tehran, were examined for P .versicolor-a superficial mycotic infection. Of these, 213 were war-wounded, 54 chemical (mustard) gas-wounded, 42 both war and chemical gas-wounded, 105 had infectious and noninfectious diseases, and 704 were apparently healthy soldiers serving in war fronts who were examined for P. versicolor and its relation with a history of contact with mustard gas. In this study the prevalence of P. versicolor among the above groups was: 7.40%, 1.85%, 9.52%, 11.42% and 6.11 % respectively. Upon microscopic examination (Scotch tape method) from hyperpigmented parts of the skin resulting from mustard gas, P. orbiculare (the etiologic agent of P. versicolor) was seen abundantly. This observation leads us to hypothesize that there may be a relation between P. versicolor and previous contact with mustard gas.
Issa Nourmohammadi, Zohreh Honari, Ali Keshavarz, Mostafa Nilforushan,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (2-1990)
Abstract

Several reports concerning high plasma dehydroascorbic acid (DHAsA) levels in diabetics have been published and from these reports, suggestions that monitoring of DHAsA levels in those persons with a predisposition to diabetes mellitus would be of value. However, conflicting reports have also appeared which do not confirm high levels of DHAsA in diabetic subjects when compared to controls. Because of these conflicting results, this investigation using Iranian diabetic subjects was undertaken to ascertain whether or not periodic monitoring of DHAsA levels would be of value as an indicator of prediabetic conditions. Our results do not confirm high levels of DHAsA in diabetics but because of the many theories concerning the mechanism of action and the metabolism of DHAsA, previous findings cannot be disregarded.
M Rezaeian,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-1991)
Abstract

Human infection with the coccidia parastite, Isospora belli is relatively uncommon. Human isosporiasis in Iran was first reported by Hadjian in 1961. 5 Yearly, about 200 stool samples have been examined by direct and formol-ether concentration techniques in the Protozoology Unit, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In addition to the common protozoal and helminthic infections, there were 10 cases of human infection with Isospora belli during alO year stool examination in our laboratory.
H Eftekhar, F Azordegan,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (11-1991)
Abstract

730 low birth weight (LBW) neonates and 1460 controls were selected from 13,123 neonates born from October 1988 to June 1989 in 17 hospitals and maternity units in Tehran, and were compared for mortality in the first seven and up to 28 days of life (early neonatal period). In this study all low birth weight newborns are divided according to four sub-groups of birth weight, and the mortality within the first seven (early neonatal mortality) and up to twenty eight days of life (neonatal mortality) is examined in both groups. Part of the results are as follows: I- low infants comprise 5.6% of total newborns, 2- 14.3% of LBW neonates die within the first seven days of life, 3-75% of very LBW neonates (less than 1500 g) die within the first seven days of life, 4- low birth weight neonates have a mortality rate twenty four times that of normal birth weight infants in the first and fourth weeks of life, 5- neonatal mortality rate in this study was 18 per thousand.
Md Froozani, Exir Monfared, I Nourmohammadi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-1992)
Abstract

Protein status of 194 pregnant women and their newborn at a public and a private maternity hospital in Tehran was studied. Blood samples were taken from all women before delivery and from cords at delivery of the placenta. The following determinations were made: total serum protein, protein fractions, creatinine and urea. In the private group, significantly higher maternal mean values were found for serum urea (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05) and B -globulin (P<0.01) when compared to the public group. In cord blood, the mean serum creatinine (P<0.01) and urea (P<0.02) were significantly higher and B -globulin (P
P Nassiri, M Jaafari, F Golbabai, M Mahmoodi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-1992)
Abstract

This paper presents a case study to determine the efficiency of the currently used heat stress indices in correlation with wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as a permissible index at a foundry plant and to evaluate the extent of the physiological responses such as heart rate and body temperature in correlation with heat stress indices. The field consisted of a foundry plant where a shift work was in operation. The results indicated that wet globe temperature (WGT), corrected effective temperature (CET), and predicted four-hour sweat rate (P4SR) indices have the best correlation with WBGT index respectively, and P4SR and CET indices correlate well with physiological responses more successfully than WBGT does in hot-dry conditions, CET index gives the best correlation with body temperature while P4SR is the most accurate with the heart rate.
M Rezaeian, A Shahmoradi, A Dalimi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-1993)
Abstract

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects epithelial cells of the intestine in a wide variety of vertebrates. During the last decade, cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a cause of diarrhea in man. Most of the' patients have AIDS, and have had contact with infected animals. In this study ' 510 samples were collected from sheep and examined for detection of this parasite. The result showed that 26.X6% of animals were colonised. Fattened sheep were less infected than lambs and those kept for milk.
Parvin Nassiri, Farideh Golbabai, Mahmoud Mahmoudi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-1993)
Abstract

This paper presents noise problems associated with the use of air-turbine drills in dental practice. Two hundred and fifty dentists (male and female) were randomly selected from the faculty of dentistry as well as the dentists who worked private in Tehran. The results indicated that the mean value of sound pressure level produced by the high-speed drills was 69.1 db. Most of the energy from the drills lied in the high frequency range, 6000- 8000 Hertz. Audiological evaluations showed that the loss of hearing in all age groups and years in dental practice lie in 6000 Hertz which has a positive correlation with the value of sound pressure level in this frequency. The hearing loss in the right ear of women was slightly higher than the left one, while this was not true in men. The hearing loss in the female group was greater than in male group.
Sa Hosseini, G Haghdadl, M Anasori, J Bahadorkhan,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-1993)
Abstract

This study began in December, 19R9, and continued for one year. 245 cases, 46.5% from urban areas and 53.5% from rural areas, were followed-up. 1 3.5% were diagnosed by general physicians and receiving drugs accordingly before the program. 30.2% were properly diagnosed, but they did not receive reasonable drugs and 56.3% were neither properly diagnosed nor did they receive reasonable treatment. The main diagnoses, according to ICD-9, were as follows: 35.9% mental retardation, 35.5% neurotic disorders, 12.2% epilepsy and its psychiatric aspects, 12.2% schizophrenia, and 4.9% affective psychoses. 21.2% were disabled in different stages. The rate of tracing in the first 6 month follow-up period was 46.15%.
M Rezaeian, Y Hamzavi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-1993)
Abstract

As there was not any previous comprehensive study on the serological tests for hepatic amebiasis in Iran, the indirect hemagglutination (IHA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IF A), and biocolored latex agglutination (BLA) tests were evaluated in the serodiagnosis of amebic liver abscess(ALA). For this purpose a total of 165 serum samples 18 of which were obtained from patients known to have ALA, were examined for Entamoeba histolytica antibodies. E. histolytica antigen used for IFA technique was prepared in the Intestinal Protozoa Laboratory, Protozoology Unit, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the survey showed that the IHA and BLA were somewhat more sensitive than IFA in the serodiagnosis of ALA. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of these tests were compared
Ar Khosravi, M Franco, M Mahmoudi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-1993)
Abstract

For demonstration of cell-mediated immunity and its role in the process of dermatophytosis, 98 patients with acute dermatophytosis (group I) and 131 chronic dermatophytosis patients (group 2) were chosen. In ail patients, lymphocyte transfonnation and skin test were used. 96 members of group I (98%) had positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to trichophytin, whereas only 43 subjects (32.8%) of group 2 had positive DTH responses. In group I, positive lymphocyte blastogenic responses to trichophytin and phytohemagglutinin were seen in 95 (96.lJ%) and lJX (100%) patients, respectively, but in group 2 the positive results were observed in4lJ (34.4%) and 127 (lJ4.9%) subjects, respectively. Patients with chronic dermatophytosis had histories of a number of systemic disorders such as: atopy 04 patients diabetes, seven patients contact dennatitis, four patients and tuberculosis, three patients.
Alireza Khosravi, Parivash Kordbacheh, Saeed Bokaee,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-1994)
Abstract

Dematophytosis in domestic animals constitutes a constant source of infection for persons in contact with them. To have an epidemiological picture of zoophilic dermatophyte infections in Iran, a study has been carried out during a period of three years (1986-1989) in an attempt to find the causative dermatophytes which infect cats and cattle and also infected human subjects in contact with them. For this purpose, 9850 samples of hair and skin were collected from suspected cattle, 953 from suspected cats, and 2326 from infected human subjects. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopic examination and c!llture. The species isolated from all cattle were Trichophyton verrucosum from cats, Microsporum canis and man, M. callis, 1583(68.1 %) and T. verrucosum 743(31.9%). From the infected human cases, mostly Tinea capitis and Tinea co/paris were detected among the age groups of 1-9 and 20-29 years old, respectively. The incidence rate observed in winter and fall was higher than spring and summer.
M Mohebali, Eh Javadlan, R Fesharakl, M Mohammadzadeh, A Nadlm, Gh Tahyildar-Bidruni, A Mesdaghinia,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (2-1995)
Abstract

A field trial was canied outon60 volunteers selected in Yazd province, central Iran, with a vaccine containing killed promastigotes of L. major prepared by the Razi Institute, Hessarak. During these phase I studies which lasted for more than two years, we examined acceptable doses of the vaccine alone or mixed with BCG. The results so far indicate that 50 to 1000 µg of the vaccine alone can be well tolerated without major side-effects. The mixture of BCG with 400 µg of the vaccine produced pain and itching in five out of six volunteers, a self-limiting lymphadenopathy in one out of six, and fever in three out of six. Further trials are planned with reduced doses of BCG. The leishmania skin test became positive in a high proportion of the treated individuals after vaccination. Circulating antibodies were detected from two weeks to one month after vaccination.
Farideh Golbabaie, Parvin Nassiri, Mahmoud Mahmoudl,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-1995)
Abstract

In order to assess the risk for mercury poisoning in dentists, urine specimens were collected and analysed from 250 dentists (190 male, 60 female). Subject data and pertinent health symptoms were asked via a questionnaire. The results indicate that the mean and standard deviation of mercury values were 51.3± 38.0 µg/L, while 27.2 percent of dentists had levels within normal limits (0-19 µg/L). The results also showed that values for general practitioners tended to be higher, but was not significant for the specialists. The data demonstrated that there is an association between health symptoms pertinent to mercury poisoning and urine mercury values above 50 µg/L
A Majd, H Eftekhar, F Azordeghan,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (2-1996)
Abstract

A case control study of "small for date" and premature infants was conducted at 17 hospitals in Tehran between December 1989 and June 1990. The study population consisted of mothers of 347 small for date, 261 premature and 1164 normal infants. Mothers who were less than 18 years old and their height less than 155 cm had a statistically significant RRF. (2.18) for the birth of small for date infants, while mothers of the same age group but with a height of 155-159 or 160-165 cm had an RR.F. of 2.61 and 1.41, respectively. It was therefore concluded that an increase in height did not decrease the R.R.F. for birth of small for date infants in teen-age mothers. Mothers older than 18 years, 18-29 and 30-39 years with a height of less than 155 cm had an RR.F. of 1.63 and 1.47, respectively, both being statistically significant concerning the birth of small for date infants. Whilst in mothers taller than 155 cm and older than 18 years no-significant risk factor was noted, it was concluded that a maternal height of less than 155 cm seems to be a contributory factor to birth of small for date infants. In this study no association was established between maternal height and prematurity. Since 57% of LBW infants were small for date, any measures aiming at decreasing this figure would be beneficial to the individual as well as to the community. Short-term measures such as marriage at an older age, availability of contraception to teen-age mothers, and more years of education for girls may help decrease the proportion of small for date infants
Mh Roustai, R Nategh, M Noroozi, Mb Eslami, M Mahmoodi, T Mokhtari Azad, K Holakooe Naeeni, M Pezeshki,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (11-1996)
Abstract

A micro neutralization test was used for the detection and evaluation of mumps neutralizing antibodies. A total of 1037 blood samples from selected groups of students aged 7 to 22 years in south and east of Tehran, 139 blood samples from the umbilical cords of pregnant women at two Tehran hospitals at delivery time, and 190 samples from children under five years of age who were living in two villages located in Zandjan province, were tested. The results of this study indicated that the percentage of the above mentioned sera having mumps virus neutralizing antibodies with a titer of 1:2 or greater was 69.6%,92.8%, and 29.5%, respectively. Vaccination against mumps is optional in the Islamic Republic of Iran and therefore it is believed that the virus is circulating among susceptible subjects. These data also suggest that children could be a target for mumps vaccination.

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