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Showing 63 results for Type of Study: Review Article

Allakbar Velayati,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (11-1992)

S.m. Taghl Ayatollahi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-1993)

Studies of human growth throughout Iran since 1966 have been surveyed critically. Only 32 papers and 15 research reports on this very crucial issue have been published or compiled so far, most of them on Tehran and Shiraz, which is negligible in comparison with American or European and even some African and Asian studies. Though measurements of height and weight naturally predominate, arm circumference, head circumference and skinfold thickness are also extensively documented. People are now heavier and taller than reported previously. Children in well-off homes everywhere grow faster than those in poor homes and urban children grow faster than rural children. The necessity for using local standards covering all age groups for clinical work in Iran is emphasised and a longitudinal growth study is suggested. A study of the pattern of growth and its related complex factors would serve as an invaluable asset in planning and (evaluation of community health service and health promotion. The paper also provides a comprehensive bibliography of growth studies in Iran which would be helpful to the interested researchers in this field.
Aa Moshtaghie,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-1993)

Aluminum is present in very small amounts in living organisms but abundant in the environment. A growing literature links with the biochemistry of aluminum and also with a series of diseases in chronic renal failure patients on treatment with hemodialysis. The initial description of potential aluminum toxicity in renal failure patients relates to description of dialysis encephalopathy syndrome in 1972. The major emphasise of this review will be on the recent literature involving aluminum metabolism and epidemiology of aluminum related disease. Finally the possibility that aluminum contributes to hypochromic microcytic anemia, dialysis osteomalacia (Newcastle bone disease), encephalopathy and Alzheimer disease in hemodialyzed patients has been also discussed.
Bahar Bastani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-1994)

H Hosseinzadeh, T.w Stone,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (2-1996)

Besides being a metabolite of nucleotides like ATP, adenosine is a mediator of neuronal function in the central nervous system. Its actions are mediated by at least three extracellular receptors. In this review different aspects of adenosine such as biosynthesis, release, inactivation and its receptors are discussed. It also covers pre- and postsynaptic effects as well as postreceptor mechanisms of adenosine. Finally, therapeutic aspects of this neuromodulator have been discussed.
Abbas A Ghaderi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-1996)

Fatah Kashanchi, M. Reza Sadaie,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (2-1997)

Bahar Bastani,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-1997)

Shayesteh Jahanfar, John A Eden,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (8-1997)

M Solati-Hasidin, F Moztarzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (11-1997)

Hormoz Dabirashrafi, Saman Zomorrodian,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (11-1997)

In this paper, we discuss the present situation of laparoscopy in gynecology. There is no doubt that hospital stay, postoperative pain and convalescence are less when it is possible to treat gynecologic disease via laparoscopy. However, for reaching the final conclusion about the other effects of this kind of surgery, e.g., adhesion formation after operation, pregnancy rate, etc., a series of prospective and randomized studies to compare laparoscopy with conventional surgery (laparotomy) are needed.
A A. merat, M Haghshenas,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (5-2000)

Homayoon Moosavi, Farhad Kioumehr, S. Abdulmajeed Rooholamini,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (2-2006)

Background: The aim of this study was to review and characterize the pattern of CNS lesions in patients suffering from AIDS and to correlate these patterns with clinical disorders. Method: The MR scan, medical records and laboratory findings of 58 AIDS patients were reviewed retrospectively during April 1994 to November 1997 at the Olive view/UCLA and Shiraz Medical Centers, and the patterns of CNS involvement by secondary pathologic processes were divided into three types: 1- Focal parenchymal lesions with enhancement and mass effect that could be solid or ring shaped. 2- Focal parenchymal lesions without mass effect and enhancement. 3- Leptomeningeal enhancement with or without adjacent cortical involvement. Focal parenchymal enhancing lesions appeared to be caused by toxoplasmosis and primary lymphoma. Multiple ring enhancing lesions were most common with toxoplasmosis. Focal parenchymal lesions without mass effect and enhancement were detected specifically in PML and all were deep within the white matter structure. Leptomeninges with or without adjacent cortical enhancement were seen in CNS infectious diseases such as TB, cryptococcosis/coccidioidomycosis and herpes zoster as well as in secondary CNS lymphoma. Granulomatous meningo-encephalitis mostly presented as basal leptomeningitis while herpes meningo-encephalitis was typically located in the temporal lobe. Secondary lymphoma showed high vertex leptomeningeal involvement. The medical history/clinical presentation/CSF findings/stereotaxic biopsy, therapeutic response and postmortem pathologic results were used to distinguish the different etiologic agents. Results: Of a total of 58 HIV seropositive patients, 12 (20%) appeared to be infected by toxoplasmosis, 7 ( 12%) by TB, 8 (14%) cryptococcosis, 5 (9%) coccidioidomycosis, 2 (3%) herpes zoster and 3(5%) cases were diagnosed as PML (progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy) according to high serum titer for papova virus group B. Sixteen cases revealed evidence of CNS lymphoma of whom 9 were diagnosed as primary and 7 as secondary CNS lymphoma. In 5 cases HIV infection itself was suspected to be the etiology of the abnormal MRI finding. Conclusion: In spite of newly developing MR spectroscopy techniques for differentiation of CNS lesions in AIDS, categorization of different MRl patterns of CNS diseases in HIV seropositive patients is still helpful in differentiating various types of common CNS lesions in AIDS.
Daryoosh Javidi, Niloofar Saffarian,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (8-2009)



  Despite sophisticated conventional medical treatment and the continued development

  and improvement of coronary revascularization modalities in recent years, a significant

  number of patients still suffer from refractory angina pectoris and cannot be successfully

  managed. Advances in therapeutic options have led to an increase in the average of life

  expectancy even in such no-option patients. Management of these patients is a challenging problem because most of them have already undergone multiple coronary interventions or surgeries and therefore are not suitable candidates for further procedures. In this situation, cardiologists who frequently face the patients are limited in their decision making when all therapeutic methods have been exhausted. The aim of this review article was to draw attention to the novel therapeutic strategies currently available for this condition, including nonconventional medical treatment, improving myocardial perfusion, neuromodulation, new vessel formation and eventually heart transplantation. Unfortunately, these therapies have only a complementary role because of inadequate experience. Therefore, maximal conventional treatment along with these options should be used on an individual basis.


Seyed Mansour Razavi, Mojgan Karbakhsh, Payman Salamati,
Volume 27, Issue 2 (5-2013)

  The main aim in this study was to collect the experiences of Iranian researchers about sulfur mustard (SM) and provide a guideline for the prevention of abuse for this dangerous agent. We searched valid national and international databases using related key words in the two languages. We found 193 articles which had been published in medical journals. Among them, 25 articles had some implications about prevention measures. In this study, we have mentioned 8 preventive points before the attacks, 10 points during and 2 points afterwards, we also found 12 points for the prevention of people who were exposed with SM and suffering from respiratory, ocular, dermatologic and psychological complications. In conclusion, most of the published studies on chemical war victims in Iran are focused on diagnosis and treatment of late SM-induced complications. Hence, a research should be conducted separately in relation to the prevention.

Azam Maradni, Alireza Khoshnevisan, Seyed Hamzeh Mousavi, Seyed Hasan Emamirazavi, Abbas Noruzijavidan,
Volume 27, Issue 4 (11-2013)


Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and about one-fourth of cerebrovascular deaths are due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms (CA). Hence it is important to find a way to reduce aneurysm formation and its subsequent morbidity and mortality. Proteolytic activity capable of lysing gelatin has been shown to be increased in aneurysm tissue and expression of plasmin, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase- 1(MT1-MMP), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in aneurysmal wall is more than what we observe in normal cerebral arteries. MMP inhibitors such as doxycycline and statins may prohibit aneurysm formation and growth. MMPs are important in tissue remodeling associated with various physiological and pathological processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis and tissue repair. In this article we review the role of MMPs and MMP inhibitors in formation of aneurysm.

Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Nahid Ashjazadeh, Ahmad Kamgarpour, Mousa Taghipour, Seyed Mohamad Rakei, Mohsen Farazdaghi, Soroor Inaloo, Mohammad Hadi Bagheri, Ali Razmkon, Zahra Zare,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Of about 40 million people with epilepsy, who live in developing countries, the majority do not

receive appropriate treatment. Nonetheless, there are striking disparities among the so-called developing countries,

however generally speaking, access to and availability of epilepsy management programs in developing

countries are very limited and therefore, the issue of developing epilepsy centers in resource-limited settings in a

large scale is very essential. The surgery for epilepsy, including temporal lobotomy, lesionectomy and corpus

colostomy, for patients with medically-refractory seizures, defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated,

appropriately chosen and using antiepileptic drug to achieve sustained freedom, from seizure has been proved to

be feasible and cost-effective in developing countries. However, the success of epilepsy surgery depends upon

the accurate identification of good surgical candidates based on the available resources and technologies without

jeopardizing safety. In the current paper, we will share our experiences of establishing an epilepsy surgery program

in Iran, despite all short-comings and limitations and try to provide some answers to those challenges,

which helped us establish our program.

Hamid Reza Aghayan, Babak Arjmand, Mohsen Yaghoubi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Homa Kashani, Farhad Shokraneh,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (1-2014)

  Background :Cell-based therapies can be used to treat neurological diseases and spinal cord injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) transplantation in patients with spinal cord injuries.

  Method s: Following a systematic review to detect clinical intervention studies, a meta-analysis was done for pooling data to estimate the outcome of BM-MNCs transplantation. The percentage of the patients with improved ASIA scale from one grade to a higher grade was defined as the main outcome. By considering the study design and outcome measurement, two reviewers independently extracted the data.

  Result s: Eight relevant primary studies were found seven qualified studies, with a combined total of 328 patients were assessed by meta-analysis, including 314 ASIA-A, 13 ASIA-B, 94 cervical, 227 thoracic and 60 acute injuries. The percentage of the patients’ improvement was tested by meta-analysis through random and fixed models. The overall percentage of all patients’ improved ASIA scale after a one- year follow-up (95% CIs) was 43 (0.27-0.59).

  Conclusion : Data from published trials revealed that encouraging results were achieved by autologous BM-MNCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury. However, the number of clinical trials included in the systematic review was too limited to reach a definite conclusion. More qualified clinical trials with standardized methods are needed to truly justify the outcome of this therapeutic modality in SCI patients.


Mahdieh Shojaa, Mehrdad Aghaie, Mostafa Qorbani, Patricia Khashayar, Mahsa Amoli, Abbas Ali Keshtkar, Ramin Mohebi, Hossein Ansari, Hamid Asayesh, Shima Rokn Sharifi,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (1-2014)

  Background :Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an important negative regulator of T-cell responses. The -1722TC polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene may be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk, but related results from previous studies have been inconsistent. We carried out a meta-analysis to assess this association more precisely.

  Methods : A systematic search through PubMed, Science Direct, and OVID, Iran doc, Iranmedex and SID (Scientific Information Database) databases was performed with the last search updated on December 30, 2011. The odds of ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. We evaluated both fixed and random effect models, depending on the presence of between-study heterogeneity. The analyses were conducted using STATA software, version 11.0.

  Results : A total of 9 independent studies on the CTLA-4 gene -1722TC polymorphism and SLE, including 1422 cases and 1417 controls were used in this meta-analysis. In the present meta-analysis, we found a significant association between -1722TC polymorphism and SLE risk in the overall analysis (TT versus TC/CC: OR=1.18, 95%CI 0.84-1.66, p= 0.32 TT/TC versus CC: OR = 2.06, 95%CI 1.07–3.99, p= 0.03 TT versus CC: OR = 2.32, 95%CI 1.62–3.32, p< 0.001 TC versus CC: OR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.42–2.78, p<0.001 TT versus TC: OR = 1.2, 95%CI 0.86–1.66, p= 0.28 T versus C: OR = 1.22, 95%CI 0.91–1.64, p= 0.16). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, -1722TC polymorphism was significantly associated with SLE risk in Asian population.

  Conclusion : This meta-analysis suggests a significant association between -1722TC polymorphism and SLE susceptibility. Large-scale and well-designed case-control studies are necessary to validate the risk identified in the present meta-analysis.

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