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Showing 8 results for Holakouie-Naieni

Alireza Ahmadvand, Farshad Farzadfar, Hamid Reza Jamshidi, Naser Mohammadi, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 29, Issue 1 (1-2015)

  Background: Statins have been effective medications in lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations across populations over time. The aim of this study was to estimate national and provincial trends in atorvastatin sales in Iran, to systematically quantify its relationship with socio-economic indicators, and changes in TC level.

  Methods : In this retrospective ecological study, conducted in Iran, we examined trends in atorvastatin sales, the wealth index (WI) as a validly-available socio-economic indicator, and TC level between 2004 and 2011. The main outcome variable was mean atorvastatin sold in defined daily dose per 100,000 people per day (DPD). We analyzed the relationship between WI and DPD and between DPD and mean TC across time and space.

  Results : At national level, both mean WI and mean DPD showed increasing trend over time, while we observed decreasing trend for TC. Mean WI and DPD in 2011 was nearly 5 and 50 time that of their respective figures in 2004, while the mean TC decreased for nearly 10%. Increases in both WI and DPD had happened in every province, but with different patterns. The maximum and minimum changes in DPD versus WI were seen in Gilan and North Khorasan respectively.

  Conclusion : A striking increase occurred in the sales for atorvastatin in Iran from 2004-2012 in most provinces examined. The wealthier a province became, the more sales were seen for atorvastatin. TC optimistically decreased from 2005 to 2011 and its decrease was positively correlated with increasing sales for atorvastatin.


Ghobad Moradi, Reza Majdzadeh, Kazem Mohammad, Hossein Malekafzali, Saeede Jafari, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (1-2016)

Background: About 80% of deaths in 350 million cases of diabetes in the world occur in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of diabetes socioeconomic inequality and the share of determinants of inequalities in Kurdistan Province, West of Iran, using two surveys in 2005 and 2009.

  Methods: Data were collected from non-communicable disease surveillance surveys in Kurdistan in 2005 and 2009. In this study, the socioeconomic status (SES) of the participants was determined based on the residential area and assets using principal component analysis statistical method.  We used concentration index and logistic regression to determine inequality. Decomposition analysis was used to determine the share of each determinant of inequality.

  Results: The prevalence of diabetes expressed by individuals changed from 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.3) in 2005 to 3.1% (95% CI: 2-4) in 2009. Diabetes Concentration Index changed from -0.163 (95% CI: -0.301- -0.024) in 2005 to 0.273 (95% CI: 0.101-0.445) in 2009. The results of decomposition analysis revealed that in 2009, 67% of the inequality was due to low socioeconomic status and 16% to area of residence; i.e., living in rural areas.

  Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes significantly increased, and the diabetes inequality shifted from the poor people to groups with better SES. Increased prevalence of diabetes among the high SES individuals may be due to their better responses to diabetes control and awareness programs or due to the type of services they were provided during these years.

Amin Doosti-Irani, Hossein Moameri Hossein Moameri, Hasan Ahmadi-Gharaei, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 31, Issue 1 (1-2017)

Background: Depression is the most common mental disorder in individuals with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), and comorbidity with depression exacerbates the disease. Several studies have estimated the prevalence of depression in HIV and AIDS patients so far, but there is no consensus about the prevalence of depression among these patients. Thus, we aimed at estimating the overall prevalence of depression among Iranian PLWHA.
   Methods: The international and national databases including Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Science Direct, MagIran, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, and Medlib were searched until June 2016. The quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
   Results: Out of 591 references, 9 cross-sectional studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The lowest and highest reported prevalence of depression among people with HIV was 22% (95% CI: (11, 33)) and 76% (95% CI: (71, 81)), respectively. Prevalence of depression in people with HIV in the north, west, and south of Iran was 45% (95% CI: (23, 67)), 30% (95% CI: (15, 45)), and 56% (95% CI: (35, 77)), respectively. Prevalence of depression among addict and non-addict patients was 25% (95% CI: (21, 30)) and 58% (95% CI: (40, 77)), respectively.
   Conclusion: According to the results of this systematic review, the prevalence of depression is considerable among Iranian PLWHA. Prevalence in the southern regions of Iran is more than the western and northern regions of Iran. This evidence may be useful for Iranian health policymakers to design suitable preventive and therapeutic interventions in PLWHA to prevent and control depression among these people in Iran.

Fahad Saqib Lodhi, Owais Raza, Ali Montazeri, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mehdi Yaseri, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 31, Issue 1 (1-2017)

Background: The present study was conducted to translate and validate the World Health Organization’s Quality-of-Life Scale -BREF into local language of Pakistan.  
   Methods: A forward- backward translation procedure was followed to develop the Pakistani version of the questionnaire. Through a multi- stage clustered sampling technique, a sample of individuals aged 18 years and above completed the questionnaire in Abbottabad district, Pakistan. Psychometric properties of the instrument including reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis), validity (known group comparison and items’ correlation) and their domains were assessed. Satisfactory results were also shown in the correlation matrix in all domains.
   Results: A total of 2060 participants were recruited in this study. Participants’ mean age was 35.51 (SD= 14.31) years in healthy individuals and 39.29 (SD= 14.31) years in diseased individuals. The internal consistency of the WHOQOL-BREF (Pakistani Version) was 0.86. Moreover, the physical, psychological, and environmental domains had acceptable reliability (alpha= 0.78, 0.75, and 0.73, respectively), but reliability was low (alpha= 0.56) in the social domain. Reproducibility of the WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: ICC range: 0.72–0.92 at 2-week retest interval. After performing comparison analysis, the results indicated that the questionnaire significantly segregated the study groups in all QoL domains, except for social relationship.
   Conclusion: The study provided strong exploratory evidence for the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF for use in Pakistan. However, more exploration is needed to improve the reliability results in the social domain. 
Fahad Saqib Lodhi, Adeel Ahmed Khan, Owais Raza, Tabrez Uz Zaman, Umer Farooq, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 33, Issue 1 (2-2019)

Background: Family system has been found to affect the satisfaction level among the family members. The objective of our study was to determine the satisfaction level and its predictors among joint and nuclear family systems in District Abbottabad, Pakistan.
   Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in all 52 :union: Councils (UCs) of District Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan from March 2015 to August 2015. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 2063 participants from both nuclear and joint family houses. Proportionate sampling was done for selecting mohalla from each UCs, and then subsequently households from respective mohalla’s. Simple random sampling was done for selecting the 18 years and above-aged participant for the study. A structured demographic questionnaire was used to collect information from study participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to find out the predictors of satisfaction level among joint and nuclear family systems using SPSS version 20 A p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant.
   Results: Level of satisfaction was found to be higher among people living in the joint family system i.e., 87.5 % v/s 81 % (<0.001) compared to the nuclear family system. Multivariate regression analysis of nuclear family system showed that people having higher education level and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were more satisfied as compared to no education & low SES respectively. While, in the joint family system, only high SES was a significant predictor of satisfaction in the joint family system as compared to low SES.   
   Conclusion: Our study reported a high level of satisfaction among joint and nuclear family systems in Pakistan. High education level and high SES were identified as important predictors of satisfaction among both systems.

Hossein Moameri, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Mehdi Yaseri, Hasan Ahmadi Gharaee, Roya Karimi, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 33, Issue 1 (2-2019)

Background: The effect of maternal mental health during pregnancy on Cesarean section through implications of pre- and postnatal birth have narrowly been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of maternal mental health during pregnancy on the type of delivery in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas.
   Methods: This study used data of 200 mothers registered in a prospective cohort study on pregnant women in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas, South of Iran, during 2016-18. The presence of depression, anxiety, or stress in expecting mothers were measured by DASS-21 questionnaire and the outcome defined as having Cesarean section (Cesarean section) was measured at postpartum. The relative risk (95% CI) was calculated using Cox regression models. All analyses were performed using STATA statistical package, with a significance level of 5%.
   Results: Information of 196 mothers were collected (98% response rate); the mean age of the participants was 27.28 (±5.62) years. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 13.8% (27), 40.4% (40), and 7.6% (15), respectively. Nearly 40% of mothers went through Cesarean section. Compared to mothers with good mental health, the risk of Cesarean section was 96% higher in depressed mothers (RR=2, 95% CI: 1.43–2.74) (p=0.001), 81% higher in anxious mothers (RR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.29-2.53) (p=0.003), and 75% higher in stressed mothers (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 0.86-3.56) (p=0.121).
   Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that poor mental health, especially anxiety and depression, during pregnancy could increase the risk of Cesarean section. Accordingly, screening protocols for mental health status and prenatal counseling sessions are suggested for pregnant mothers to increase their informed decision on types of delivery.
Owais Raza, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 34, Issue 1 (2-2020)

    Background: Diarrhea in children under 5 years is generally considered as an important public health problem and the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to present exploratory spatial data analyses to identify spatial clusters and outliers in the prevalence of childhood diarrhea in Mozambique.
   Methods: Using data from 2011 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey, we calculated the prevalence of childhood diarrhea on the district level. Two exploratory spatial data analyses methods were applied, namely, global and local Moran’s I statistics, providing spatial autocorrelation and spatial clusters/outlier in the prevalence of childhood diarrhea, respectively.
   Results: Choropleth mapping and global Moran’s I statistics showed that the prevalence of childhood diarrhea has clustered distribution across the study area. A local Moran’s I index revealed spatial clusters within the province of Tete, Gaza, Cabo Delgado, and Zambezia. However, spatial outliers were confined within Sofala province.
   Conclusion: The exploratory spatial data analyses showed various spatial clustering and outliers present in the prevalence of childhood diarrhea, indicating interventions needed in targeted regions.
Yousef Alimohamadi, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Manoochehr Karami, Mehdi Yaseri, Mojtaba Lotfizad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni,
Volume 34, Issue 1 (2-2020)

Background: In spite of existing vaccination programs in many countries, outbreaks of pertussis are still reported. In Iran, the suspected and confirmed cases of pertussis are reported annually. Due to the lack of similar studies, the purpose of the current study was to determine the Spatio-temporal distribution of Pertussis using Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify high-risk areas in Iran during 2012-2018.
   Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, registered data in the department of vaccine-preventable diseases in the Iranian ministry of health were used. To assess the temporal trend, the Cochran–Armitage test was used. To show the spatial distribution and to identify hotspot areas, Choropleth map and Getis-Ord Gi statistics were used. All analyses performed by Arc.map10.5, Stata 15 and Excel 2010.
   Results: The incidence of suspect pertussis cases had an increasing trend but did not have a linear trend (p=0.06). Most of the cases happened in under 1 year infants (62.66%).  The incidence of reported cases in northern areas was higher than in the Southern areas. The Zanjan had the most reported cases during the understudied period with a median of 7.63 reported cases per 100,000.  The clustering of infection and hotspots were identified in northern areas of Iran including Qazvin, Qom, Markazi, and Hamadan.
   Conclusion: Our results showed that the cumulative incidence of reported cases is increasing. The northern ‎ provinces had the highest incidence of Pertussis. Therefore, the causes of this spatio-temporal pattern of pertussis should be determined. Also, supervision on vaccination programs in high-risk areas is recommended.

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